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Temperance advocates worked closely with the labor movement, as well as the women suffrage movement, partly because there was mutual support and benefit, and the causes were seen as connected. According to Aristotle, Beste Spielothek in Semmersteig finden is a mean with regard to pleasures". Slavery and alcohol trade in colonies were seen as two closely related problems, described as "the twin oppressors of the people". Julian—Gregorian uncertainty CS1 maint: Ina national organisation was formed amidst an explosion of Band of Hope work. Much of the temperance movement was based on Beste Spielothek in Kleinenbreden finden religion, which saw women as responsible for edifying their children Beste Spielothek in Konig Friedfricks VII Koog finden be abstaining citizens. He mainly concentrated his fire on the elimination of spirits rather than wine and beer. The group campaigned politically for the curtailment of the influence of pubs and brewers. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The Zealand Journal of History.
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In , Calvinist ministers met with a seminary in Massachusetts to write articles about abstinence from alcohol to use in preaching to their congregations.
Its peak of influence was in , but the MSSI ended in and made no significant mark on the future of the temperance movement. Their methods had little effect in implementing temperance and drinking actually increased until after ; however, their methods of public pledges and meetings as well as handing out pamphlets were implemented by more lasting temperance societies such as the American Temperance Society.
The temperance movement began at a national level in the s, having been popularized by evangelical temperance reformers and among the middle classes.
The movement spread to eight states, advocating temperance rather than abstinence and taking positions on religious issues such as observance of the Sabbath.
After the American Revolution there was a new emphasis on good citizenship for the new republic. This included abolitionism and temperance.
The temperance movement promoted temperance and emphasized the moral, economical and medical effects of overindulgence.
Beecher described inebriation as a "national sin" as well as suggesting legislation to prohibit the sales of alcohol.
In the Rochester, New York revival of , individuals were required to sign a temperance pledge in order to receive salvation.
Finney believed and taught that the body represented the "temple of God" and anything that would harm the "temple" including alcohol, must be avoided.
In some of the large communities, temperance almanacs were released which gave information about planting and harvesting as well as current information about the temperance issues.
Temperance societies were being organized in England about the same time, many inspired by a Belfast professor of theology, and Presbyterian Church of Ireland Minister John Edgar ,  who poured his stock of whiskey out of his window in He mainly concentrated his fire on the elimination of spirits rather than wine and beer.
He also formed the Ulster Temperance Movement with other Presbyterian clergy, initially enduring ridicule from members of his community. The s saw a tremendous growth in temperance groups, not just in England and the United States, but also in British colonies, especially New Zealand  and Australia.
Out of the religious revival and reform appeared Mormonism and Seventh-day Adventism , new Christian denominations that established criteria for healthy living as a part of their religious teachings, namely temperance.
The Word of Wisdom is a health code followed by the members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and other Latter Day Saint denominations which advises how to maintain good health: One of the most prominent items in the Word of Wisdom is the complete abstinence from alcohol.
In June , the Millenial Harbinger quoted from a book "The Simplicity of Health" which strongly condemned the use of alcohol, tobacco, and the untempered consumption of meat, similar to the provisions in the Word of Wisdom revealed three years later.
This gave publicity to the movement and Temperance Societies began to form. Although he advocated for temperance, Joseph Smith did not preach complete abstinence from alcohol.
According to Paul H. Peterson and Ronald W. Walker, Joseph Smith did not enforce abstinence from alcohol because he believed it would threaten individual choice and agency as well as that forcing the Latter Day Saints to comply would cause separation in the Church.
Beardsley's book Joseph Smith and his Mormon Empire , Beardsley argues that some Mormon historians attempted to portray Joseph Smith as a teetotaler, but according to the testimonies of his contemporaries, Joseph Smith often drank alcohol in his own home or the homes of his friends in Kirtland.
In Nauvoo, Illinois Smith was far less discreet with his drinking habits. Grant , then president of the LDS church, officially called on the Latter-day Saints to strictly adhere to the Word of Wisdom, including complete abstinence from alcohol.
Founder of the Millerites, William Miller claimed that the Second Coming of Jesus Christ would be in and that anyone who drank alcohol would be unprepared for the Second Coming.
White and her husband, a preacher, James Springer White who did not use alcohol or tobacco. As a response to rising social problems in urbanized areas, a stricter form of temperance emerged called teetotalism , which promoted the complete abstinence from alcoholic beverages, this time including wine and beer, not just ardent spirits.
By , they had gained 1. This created conflict between the teetotalists and the more moderate members of the ATS. Considering drinking was an important part of their cultures, German and Irish immigrants resisted the movement.
In , a group of artisans in Baltimore, Maryland created their own temperance society that could appeal to hard-drinking men like themselves.
Calling themselves the Washingtonians , they pledged complete abstinence, attempting to persuade others through their own experience with alcohol rather than relying on preaching and religious lectures.
They argued that sympathy was an overlooked method for helping people with alcohol addictions, citing coercion as an ineffective method. For that reason, they did not support prohibitive legislation of alcohol.
They never set up national organizations, believing that concentration of power and distance from citizens causes corruption. Meetings were public and they encouraged equal participation, appealing to both men and women and northerners and southerners.
In the speech, Lincoln criticized early methods of the temperance movement as overly forceful and advocated reason as the solution to the problem of intemperance, praising the current temperance movement methods of the Washingtonian movement.
By , the Washingtonian movement was no longer as prominent for three reasons. Firstly, the evangelist reformers attacked them for refusing to admit alcoholism was a sin.
Secondly, the movement was criticized as unsuccessful due to the number of men who would go back to drinking. Finally, the movement was internally divided by differing views on prohibition legislation.
They, however, differed from the Washingtonians through their closed rather than public meetings, fines, and membership qualifications, believing their methods would be more effective in curbing men's alcohol addictions.
By the mids, the United States was divided from differing views of slavery and prohibition laws and economic depression.
The prayer meeting largely characterized this religious revival. Prayer meetings were devotional meetings run by laypeople rather than clergy and consisted of prayed and testimony by attendees.
The meetings were held frequently and pledges of temperance were confessed. Prayer meetings and pledges characterized the post-Civil war "gospel" temperance movement.
This movement was similar to early temperance movements in that drunkenness was seen as a sin; however, public testimony was used to convert others and convince them to sign the pledge.
The movement relied on the reformed individuals using local evangelical resources to create institutions to reform drunk men. Reformed men in Massachusetts and Maine formed "ribbon" clubs to support men who were interested in stopping drinking.
Ribbon reformers traveled throughout the Midwest forming clubs and sharing their experiences with others. Gospel rescue missions or inebriate homes were created that allowed homeless drunkards a safe place to reform and learn to practice total abstinence while receiving food and shelter.
During the Victorian period, the temperance movement became more political, advocating the legal prohibition of all alcohol, rather than only calling for moderation.
Proponents of temperance, teetotalism and prohibition came to be known as the "drys". There was still a focus on the working class, but also their children.
It aimed to save working class children from the drinking parents by teaching them the importance and principles of sobriety and teetotalism.
In , a national organisation was formed amidst an explosion of Band of Hope work. Meetings were held in churches throughout the UK and included Christian teaching.
The group campaigned politically for the curtailment of the influence of pubs and brewers. The organization became quite radical, organizing rallies, demonstrations and marches to influence as many people as possible to sign the pledge of allegiance to the society and to resolve to abstain "from all liquors of an intoxicating quality, whether ale, porter, wine or spirits, except as medicine.
In this period there was local success at restricting or banning the sale of alcohol in many parts of the United States.
In , Massachusetts banned certain sales of spirits. The law was repealed two years later, but it set a precedent.
The movement became more effective, with alcohol consumption in the US being decreased by half between and During this time, prohibition laws came into effect in twelve US states, such as Maine.
Maine Law was passed in by the efforts of Neal Dow. The Temperance movement was a significant mass movement at this time and encouraged a general abstinence from the consumption of alcohol.
A general movement to build alternatives to replace the functions of public bars existed, so the Independent Order of Rechabites was formed in England, with a branch later opening in America as a friendly society that did not hold meetings in public bars.
There was also a movement to introduce temperance fountains across the United States—to provide people with reliably safe drinking water rather than saloon alcohol.
The National Prohibition Party led by John Russell gradually became more popular, gaining more votes, as they felt that the existing Democrat and Republican parties did not do enough for the temperance cause.
Reflecting the teaching on alcohol of their founder John Wesley ,  Methodist Churches were aligned with the temperance movement. The Salvation Army quickly spread internationally, maintaining an emphasis on abstinence.
The two goals of the organization were to convince the skeptical medical community of the existence and seriousness of the disease of alcoholism and to prove the efficacy of asylum treatments of alcoholics.
Treatment often included restraint of the patient while they reformed both physically and morally. The Anti-Saloon League was an organization that began in in Ohio.
Reacting to urban growth, it was driven by evangelical Protestantism. At the time, Americans drank about three times much as they did in the s.
Anthony stating that "The only hope of the Anti-Saloon League's success lies in putting the ballot into the hands of women", i.
Actions of the temperance movement were organizing sobriety lectures and setting up reform clubs for men and children.
Some proponents also opened special temperance hotels and lunch wagons, and lobbied for banning liquor during prominent events. The Scientific Temperance Instruction Movement published textbooks, promoted alcohol education and held many lectures.
This new trend of temperance movement would be the last but also prove the most effective. During this time, there was also a growth in non-religious temperance groups linked to left-wing movements, such as the Scottish Prohibition Party.
Founded in , it went on to defeat Winston Churchill in Dundee in the general election. A favorite goal of the British Temperance movement was sharply to reduce heavy drinking by closing as many pubs as possible.
Advocates were Protestant nonconformists who played a major role in the Liberal Party. The Liberal Party adopted temperance platforms focused on local option.
Asquith —although a heavy drinker himself  —took the lead by proposing to close about a third of the , pubs in England and Wales, with the owners compensated through a new tax on surviving pubs.
However, the People's Tax of included a stiff tax on pubs. The movement gained further traction during the First World War, with President Wilson issuing sharp restrictions on the sale of alcohol in many combatant countries.
This was done to preserve grain for food production. According to alcohol researcher Johan Edman, the first country to issue an alcohol prohibition was Russia, as part of war mobilization policies.
In , the ASL began its efforts for national prohibition. He used hard political persuasion called "Wheelerism" in the s of legislative bodies.
Rather than ask directly for a vote, which Wheeler viewed as weak, Wheeler would cover the desks of legislators in telegrams.
He was also accomplished in rallying supporters; the Cincinnati Enquirer called Wheeler "the strongest political force of his day". The amendment, also called "the noble experiment", was preceded by the National Prohibition Act , which stipulated how the federal government should enforce the amendment.
National prohibition was proposed several times in New Zealand as well, and nearly successful. Norway introduced partial prohibition in , which became full prohibition through a referendum in , although this was overturned in The temperance movement started to wane in the s, with prohibition being criticised as creating unhealthy drinking habits,  encouraging criminals and discouraging economic activity.
Prohibition would not last long: The gradual relaxation of licensing laws went on throughout the 20th century, with Mississippi being the last state to end prohibition in Initially, prohibition had some positive effects in some states, with Ford reporting that absenteeism in his companies had decreased by half.
Also, statistical analysis has shown that the temperance movement during this time had a positive, though moderate, effect on later adult educational outcomes through providing a healthy pre-natal environment.
The US and other countries with prohibition saw their tax revenues decrease dramatically, with some estimating this at a loss of 11 billion dollars for the US.
Because the Eighteenth Amendment did not prohibit consumption, but only manufacture, distribution and sale, illegal consumption became commonplace.
Illegal production of alcohol rose, and a thousand people per year died of alcohol that was illegally produced with little quality control.
Bootlegging was a profitable activity for the mafia, and crime increased rather than decreased as expected and advocated by proponents.
The temperance movement itself was in decline as well: During this time, in former colonies such as Gujarat in India, Sri Lanka and Egypt , the temperance movement was associated with anti-colonialism or religious revival.
The temperance movement still exists in many parts of the world, although it is generally less politically influential than it was in the early 20th century.
In youth culture in the s, temperance was an important part of the straight edge scene, which also stressed abstinence from other drugs.
The Allegheny Wesleyan Methodist Connection and Salvation Army , for example, are Christian Churches that continue to require that their members refrain from drinking alcohol as well as smoking, taking illegal drugs, and gambling.
Temperance proponents saw the alcohol problem as the most crucial problem of Western civilization. Historical analysis of conference documents helps create an image of what the temperance movement stood for.
The movement believed that alcohol abuse was a threat to scientific progress, as it was believed citizens had to be strong and sober to be ready for the modern age.
Progressive themes and causes such as abolition, natural self-determination, worker's rights, and the importance of women in rearing children to be good citizens were key themes of this citizenship ideology.
In that sense, it was a radical movement with liberal and socialist aspects, although in some parts of the world, notably the US, allied with conservatism.
Temperance advocates worked closely with the labor movement, as well as the women suffrage movement, partly because there was mutual support and benefit, and the causes were seen as connected.
Temperance proponents used a variety of means to prevent and treat alcohol abuse and restrict its consumption. Scientists who were temperance proponents attempted to find the underlying causes of alcohol abuse.
At the same time, criticism rose toward use of alcohol in medical care. Nevertheless, restriction of consumption was most emphasized in the movement, though ideas on how to accomplish this were varied and conflicting.
During the s decade, the ideal of strong citizens was further developed into the hygienism ideology. Numerous periodicals devoted to temperance were published [note 7] and temperance theatre , which had started in the s, became an important part of the American cultural landscape at this time.
Foster composed a number of these songs. Much of the temperance movement was based on organized religion, which saw women as responsible for edifying their children to be abstaining citizens.
By , there were over 24 women's organizations dedicated to the temperance movement. Women were specifically drawn to the temperance movement, because it represented a fight to end a practice that greatly affected women's quality of life.
Temperance was seen as a feminine, religious and moral duty, and when achieved, it was seen as a way to gain familial and domestic security as well as salvation in a religious sense.
Anthony were active in temperance and abolitionist movements in the s. A myriad of factors contributed to women's interest in the temperance movement.
One of the initial contributions was the frequency in which women were victims of alcohol abuse. Anthony stated that women suffer the most from drunkenness.
It was one of the cardinal virtues in western thought found in Greek philosophy and Christianity, as well as eastern traditions such as Buddhism and Hinduism.
Temperance is one of the six virtues in the positive psychology classification, included with wisdom , courage , humanity , justice , and transcendence.
The term "temperance" can also refer to the abstention from alcohol teetotalism , especially with reference to the temperance movement. The Greek definition of temperance translates to "moderation in action, thought, or feeling; restraint".
According to Aristotle, "temperance is a mean with regard to pleasures". Plato quickly dismisses the three first definitions and argues against 4 that if 'sophrosune' would have been only the property of knowing what one knows or not, then it would be useless without knowledge about other matters.
Temperance is an essential part of the Eightfold Path. In the Judeo-Christian tradition, temperance is prolific. The Old Testament emphasizes temperance as a core virtue, as evidenced in both Solomon's Book of Proverbs and in the Ten Commandments , with its admonitions against adultery and covetousness.
The New Testament does so as well, with forgiveness being central to theology and self-control being one of the Fruits of the Spirit.
Thomas Aquinas promoted Plato's original virtues in addition to several others. Within the Christian church Temperance is a virtue akin to self-control.
It is applied to all areas of life. It can especially be viewed in practice among sects like the Amish , Old Order Mennonites , and Conservative Mennonites.
In the Christian religion, temperance is a virtue that moderates attraction and desire for pleasure and "provides balance in the use of created goods".
Thomas calls it a "disposition of the mind which binds the passions". The concept of dama Sanskrit: It is sometimes written as damah Sanskrit: Brihadaranyaka Upanishad , in verse 5.
The list of virtues that constitute a moral life evolve in vedas and upanishads. Over time, new virtues were conceptualized and added, some replaced, others merged.
For example, Manusamhita initially listed ten virtues necessary for a human being to live a dharmic moral life: In later verses this list was reduced to five virtues by the same scholar, by merging and creating a more broader concept.
The shorter list of virtues became: Five types of self-restraints are considered essential for a moral and ethical life in Hindu philosophy: The necessity for temperance is explained as preventing bad karma which sooner or later haunts and returns to the unrestrained.
Temperance in Jainism is deeply imbibed in its five major vows which are:. In Jainism, the vow of Ahimsa is not just restricted to not resorting to physical violence, but it also encompasses in itself abstinence from violence in any and all form either by thought, speech or action.
Values of temperance are still advocated by more modern sources such as the Boy Scouts , William Bennett , and Ben Franklin. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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